tibia and fibula
Rationale: The tibia and fibula are the two bones in the lower portion of the leg, that connect between the knee and ankle. The tibia is sometimes called the shinbone, and is the second largest bone in the body. The tibia is longer and stronger than the fibula, and is found on the medial portion of the leg. The fibula is the smaller, rear calf bone in the lower leg. It is connected to the tibia by an interosseous membrane.
Rationale: Each hand has 27 bones including the wrist. There are 14 bones in the fingers, with 2 bones in each thumb and 3 in each of the other four fingers. These bones are called phalanges.
Rationale: The mandible is a U shaped bone that stretches from one ear, down forming the chin, and then back up to the other ear. It is connected to the upper part of the skull by two jaw joints called the tempero mandibular joints. The mandible forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place.
Rationale: The spine is made up of 33 single bones called vertebrae. Of these bones, only 26 are individual bones. The remaining 9 vertebrae include 5 fused together in the sacrum, and 4 that are fused together in the coccyx. The main parts of a vertebra include the body, spinous process, transverse process, articular process, pedicles and laminae. The vertebrae are separated by intervertebral discs that provide separation and cushioning between the vertebrae. The vertebrae provide for muscle connection. This muscle connection allows for movement of the spine and for the spine to support the weight of the upper body. The vertebral column also provides protection for the spinal cord which carries nerves between the brain and the rest of the body.
Rationale: The clavicle is also known as the collar bone. There are two clavicles in the body, one to connect each arm to the trunk of the body. They are located at the base of the neck, and run horizontally between the sternum and shoulders. The clavicles are the bony prominences that can be seen on the upper chest of a person. The clavicle has several purposes. It keeps the scapula in position so the arm hangs freely away from the trunk of the body, which allows for maximum range of movement of the arm. The clavicle also provides attachments for the muscles of the arms, chest, and back. The clavicle is weak, and can fracture easily when pressure is applied to the bone.
Rationale: The sternum is a long flat bone in the middle of the chest, and is also known as the breastbone. It connects to the rib bones by cartilage, forming the anterior section of the rib cage. The sternum helps to protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels from damage. The sternum can be divided into three regions- the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process.
Rationale: The femur is the only bone in the thigh, and is the largest and strongest long bone in the body. There is one femur in each leg. The femur connects with the hip bone to support the trunk and upper body. The long, straight part of the femur is called the femoral shaft. The top of femur has a head, known as the femoral head. The head of the femur fits into the ball socket of the hip joint, which allows for movement of the legs.
radius and ulna
Rationale: The forearm contains two long bones, the radius and the ulna, which form the radioulnar joint. There is one radius and one ulna in each arm. The radius and ulna bones connect between the elbow joint and the wrist. The radius is on the outside, or lateral side, of the elbow and it connects to the thumb side of the wrist. The radius is bigger and longer than the ulna, and is on the inside of the forearm closest to the body. The bony point of the elbow is the tip the ulna bone.
Rationale: The patella is a circular, triangular shaped bone that covers and protects the knee joint. It is attached to the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle, which contracts to extend or straighten the knee.
Rationale: In the human body, the metacarpus is the palm of the hand that is located between the phalanges and the carpus, which forms the connection to the forearm. The metacarpus consists of 5 bones, known as metacarpal bones. The hand is attached to the forearm by 8 carpals, which are the bones in the wrist. These bones are similar to the bones in the foot, which are called metatarsals.